By - AutoModerator
Are there any examples of powerful matriarchal societies throughout history? A quick google search has given me a bunch of small kingdoms and villages of no particular significance.
I was wondering if there are some examples of matriarchal kingdoms or empires where during the time they were matriarchies they greatly expanded their borders, shook the world or in case that they were already immensely powerful underwent vast internal improvements.
Hello, brief question about infantry flags in the Napoleonic wars,
I've been lately using 3d software to design Napoleonic block units (2mm scale if you're wondering) and wasn't sure how frequently a flag-bearer should be added to a unit. I've done a bit of research and found that (generally) there was one flag to one infantry battalion (not in terms of a unit-specific design, just the country's flag) I'm not sure if the source was correct.
Yes, "the Porte", or more accurately "Sublime Porte" was a name that refers to literally the seat of the Ottoman government or more figuratively the Ottoman government itself. In 16th century mostly meaning Sultan and his circle of advisors, later Grand Vizier's office as the exact meaning changed through the ages.
It is often found term for referring to the general Ottoman government/state without going into details.
From Gabor Agoston, *Encyclopedia of Ottoman empire*, page 616:
> Bab-ı Âli (Bab-i hümayun, Dergah-i ali) Literally, “Sublime Porte”; the seat of government; in the 15th–17th centuries the Topkapı Palace where the sultan and the Imperial Divan or Council resided; later it referred to the grand vizier’s office; the Ottoman government.
The origin of the term can be found at page 10 of the same work:
>From the earliest times, Ottoman sultans were assisted by an informal advisory body of lords and state officials. Out of this body, the divan or state council emerged as a formal government organ. Known usually as Divan-ı Hümayun or Imperial Council, the Divan was originally a court of justice and appeals that performed the most important task of a near eastern ruler, that of dispensing justice. At the same time, the Divan acted as the supreme organ of government and, in wartime, served as a high command. Until Mehmed II, the sultans personally presided at the Divan’s meetings, which usually took place near the gate of the sultan’s palace. Thus the terms kapı or gate (of the palace) and dergah-ı âlî or **Sublime Porte** came to denote the Ottoman government. However, during the first 150 years of the institution, which saw almost incessant campaigns, the Divan met wherever the sultan was.
Do we know the earliest instance of people cheering when a glass is accidentally smashed (in a pub)?
I take a strong interest in modern German history, especially party politics and elections from the German Empire to the present. A few years I came across a cartoon propaganda piece from the right-liberal Deutsche Volkspartei (DVP or German People's Party in English) that depicted out of control Socialists ("Sozis"), Communists, Nazis, and reactionary monarchists (probably referring to DNVP) each rampantly attacking cherished institutions (the Socialist was attacking a church for instance and Hitler is depicted wielding a swastika hammer) in fourdifferent squares. At the bottom a finger is pointing towards a sleepy looking man in a night cap and urging him to vote for the DVP. The cartoon's style, depictions, and themes are strikingly similar to [this](https://luna.library.wmich.edu/luna/servlet/detail/WMUwmu~82~82~196732~120655) poster. I found that I think it may be by the same artist and electioncampaign, but otherwise clearly distinct in content. I think I found it pretty quickly through Google search then but its hard to find it again now.
When were spyglasses and telescopes first used in war, particularly on land? By the mid-late 18th century I think they were pretty common, but would e.g. Gustavus Adolphus have had one?
What are the most common misconceptions about 'the Wild West' era?
Yes, we have examples of royal hostages like this from the Bronze Age onward. For example, it was a standard practice in ancient Egypt beginning in the reign of Thutmose III (15th century BCE) to raise the children of subject rulers in the Egyptian court as hostages before installing them on their fathers' thrones. This not only forged a bond between the Egyptian and Canaanite princes in the royal nursery (Egyptian *kꜣp*) but also instilled Egyptian values in the young Canaanite princes and princesses. This practice was later adopted by the Assyrians, and one sees similar hostages raised in the Neo-Assyrian court, like the Arabian princess Tabua. To quote Esarhaddon 1 (or Nineveh A) available in English translation in [RINAP 4](https://www.eisenbrauns.org/books/titles/978-1-57506-209-9.html),
>*Hazael, the king of the Arabs, came to Nineveh, my capital city, with his heavy audience gift and kissed my feet. He implored me to give (back) his gods, and I had pity on him. I refurbished the gods Atar-samayin, Dāya, Nuḫāya, Ruldāwu, Abirillu, and Atar-qurumâ, the gods of the Arabs, and I inscribed the might of the god Aššur, my lord, and (an inscription) written in my name on them and gave them back to him. I placed the lady Tabūa, who was raised in the palace of my father, as ruler over them and returned her to her land with her gods.*
Historians usually just refer to them as hostages. ["After Eltekeh: Royal Hostages from Egypt at the Assyrian Court"](https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1360348/1/Radner_FS%20Roaf%20%282012%29%20After%20Eltekeh.pdf) by Karen Radner and [*The Arsacids of Rome: Royal Hostages and Roman-Parthian Relations in the First Century CE*](https://www.proquest.com/openview/279a0c35c6681fde94f6af231c8f81dd/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750) by Jake Nabel are a couple of examples.
How many Germans settled in Norway during the Hanseatic period?
Settlements in rural (i.e. non-city) area especially before the Reformation (1537 in Norway) must have been negligible, since Norway had not developed the mining industry yet in contrast to the rise of iron mining and production industry in late medieval Sweden.
The largest concentration of German population was found of course in Bergen, the staple of the cod fish export around the Northern Seas in the Later Middle Ages. A tax register of 1522 shows that 157 German head of the household (who is liable for the tax) lived in 22 quarters in Bergen. Researchers estimates that each household have 4-6 apprentices or servants, probably German, so they suppose that the Hansestic Kontor in Bergen probably had around 900 German settlers.
Note that this figure did not include temporary (usually summer period only) visiting merchants in the city: the government of Copenhagen, Denmark estimated in 1552 that at least 3,000 German stayed in Bergen, but Helle dismissed this estimation as too much and instead pays attention to about 2,000, based on the account of Lübeck on their attack and killing of Olav Nilsson, a Norwegian high-rank nobility in the monastery Munkaliv in 1455.
The estimated population of medieval Bergen is about 7,000, so 1,000 settlers and more than 1,000 temporary visiting German probably consisted of a little less than 30% of the demography of this 'Hanseatic city' (Helle 1982: 742-44).
* Helle, Bergen. *Bergen bys historie, i: Kongssete og kjøpstad fra opphavet til 1536*. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget, 1982.
Hi, I was wondering if anybody is able to help me find a citation for the origins (either known or assumed) of the phrase "Africa begins at the Pyrenees"?
I'm currently writing a PhD research proposal on European preconceptions of Spanish culture and music (for a musicology PhD rather than a history PhD) and I'm struggling to find any academic text which explains the origins (known or assumed) of the French phrase which I can use as a citation for the proposal (I've found plenty discussions on forums and other websites which I couldn't realistically cite, some claiming the phrase has Spanish origin instead of French). The phrase is used repeatedly in academic papers but often in the context of a related topic area (such as perceptions of the practices of bullfighting by non-Spanish Europeans etc.), if anybody is able to point me towards a paper, thesis or book which delves into the phrase and its origins I would be incredibly grateful.
You may want to edit the phrase itself into this question, as it will be impossible for anyone to help you with out it.
Did Columbus sell children as sex slaves?
So I watched three videos concerning Columbus, the first is a Ted Ed video, the second a Knowing Better, the third a Bad Empanada. Ted Ed tells its viewers that Columbus is bad even for his own time by saying he sells children as young as nine as sex slaves. Knowing Better disputes this, saying that the text where he mentions children as sex slaves is when he says he is heartbroken that people are accusing him of it and that he is complaining that the colonists are doing it, not him. Bad Empanada counters this, saying that the full text indicates that he is referring to child sex slaves as an economical reference, as part of the economy going on in the colony, not complaining about it. He also points out Columbus on numerous occasions kidnapped women and give one as gifts to a friend of his who then raped her. From the text, it is clear that Columbus and his colleagues are not taking women and keeping them so they can do house chores, but these could be adult women. But I am unable to find a text to tell that he indeed sell children as sex slaves, he just mentions it in an economical term and in my opinion, is rather neutral about it, not repulsed by it but not confirming that he himself did it (because of course he would, if he did it that is). Since he is the only authority the natives and colonists answer in the New World, he may or not let child sex slave be present in his colony. But what do you think? Is there any other texts that mention child sex slaves or accusation thrown against Columbus?
What historical figures developed a powerful life coming from being slave/poor?
Do we have any illuminated Muslim manuscripts from Christian Spain? There are a couple of Jewish ones like the Sarajevo Hagaddah and [this](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Rambam_mishne-torah.jpg) Mishneh Torah which don't look different from any Christian European manuscript and it made me curious if Muslims under Christian rule were similarly "Europeanized".
I just bought a [matryoshka doll](https://imgur.com/a/ozhqeb4) and I'm not sure who everyone in it is.
Yeltsin - Gorbachev - ??? - Putin? - ??
I've looked for Ledi perestroika but I can't find any figure that is referred to in this way. If anyone knows that'd be helpful!
Is it Syngman Rhee, Rhee Syngman or Rhee Syng-man?
When did the Spanish monarchs first add *Spain* to their titles? (As in, not just Castille and Aragon separately).
Meta:can’t we have an unanswered flair that is removed automatically by a bot when someone posts an answer?
I’m tired of clicking on posts with two comments to find one is the automod and another that doesn’t exist.
Searching by flair would also make answers much easier
There’s a subreddit for that, r/historiansanswered
But you would think if what is this thing can do open/solved flairs, the same could happen here
We have a meta thread [on this exact topic](https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/g3ph8c/rules_roundtable_xi_answered_answered_flair_and/)! I'd specifically point to the note at the bottom about our browser extension that cuts out the removed comments.
That would help normally but I usually read on mobile -I’ll checkout r/historiansanswered for now though
During the period where the Brits controlled Bhutan's foreign affairs, was it considered a princely state and part of the British Raj?
Is there an area on our planet that has never been conquered, stolen, etc.?
I learned in school that Thomas Jefferson had a black half-brother. Did he own his brother, or was he free?
I think you're thinking of James Hemmings, who was Franklin's *wife*'s half-brother (one of a number of half- siblings; Martha Jefferson's father fathered 6 children with James's mother)
He was an enslaved man, but negotiated for his freedom when he was 30 years old.
Source: [Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia](https://www.monticello.org/site/research-and-collections/james-hemings)
Can anyone help me identify influential women in history with big noses?
I know Dio Cassius referenced Cleopatria in His History of Rome. I’m seeing a post-doc who hates her nose and would love to make like a citation index of historical references if influential women with big noses or who were just generally unconventional as a gift.
What is the first form of representative democracy where the representation lay in regions and not in classes? In all ancient democracies the senate is more or less elected by those living in the capital city (Rome, Carthage, Athens, etc), and people divided into cohorts based on their wealth (e.g. Rome). What was the first instance of democracy that we know of that divided its electors based on cities / regions / states, as the majority of the world does today?
I would love to find a list where it lists some recipes chronologically. Like for example from the 1900s, 1800s, 1700s, as far in the past as it can.
We have preserved books that are even more than 2000 years old, so I would be confident that we also have had some old books over the years describing recipes of that period. I couldn't find much myself, at most until 1900.
The [Food Timeline](https://www.foodtimeline.org) is brilliant for finding old recipes. The important thing to be aware of is that recipes before the late 19th century didn't generally include standardized measurements.
This is an image of a Space Marine. It's a science-fiction warrior, but his armor is based on medieval plate armor. Note that on his left shoulder, there is a plate with a skull on it. What do you call that thing? I looked up medieval armor and I think that thingy was used on jousting armor. It's supposed to take the impact of the opponent's lance.
Dynasties with a long unbroken father to son line?
I don't just mean a long male line that could have included cousins, uncles and what not but is there a strong candidate for a dynasty with the most impressive dynastic line that was passed exclusively from father to son for generations?
In what year was downtown DC restricted to civilian air traffic? i.e. when was the River Visual Approach required to land at DCA from north, versus a straight approach that would be crossing over the Mall?
My impression is this was well before 9/11, but all the search results are of course bogged down by a9/11 when restrictions were *further* increased as I understand.
This might not be a complete answer, but at least to get started, a run down of these executive orders;
>Airspace Reservation over Portions of the District of Columbia.
>\[Executive Order No. 7910, 16 June 1938, 3 F.R. 1437; supersededby No. 8378, 18 March 1940, 5 F.R. 1114; superseded by No. 8950,26 November 1941, 6 F.R. 6101; amended by No. 9153, 30 April1942, 7 F.R. 3275; superseded by No. 10126, 9 May 1950, 15 F.R.2867.\]
[No. 10126 of Truman can be found here](https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/executive-order-10126-establishing-airspace-reservation-over-portions-the-district), Lincoln Memorial already being the south-west boundary, barring direct approach.
It was legislated in [1966, Title 14 of Code of Federal Regulation.](https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/14)
In 1999, [The administration was changed from FAA to The Secret service.](https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1999-03-18/pdf/99-6634.pdf)
My access to resources is currently appaling ( it has been for awhile frankly ), it seems this is what I can muster quickly at his time. Perhaps someone else will supplement it, or I might for some specific peculiarities if able.
Thanks! I *thought* the opening to Airport '77 seemed suspect!
>the opening to Airport '77
[This scene at 2:40?](https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x836qol)
Yes, very much so.
For more information, Library of Congress has old TAC maps, I believe, and [this is a current one for Washington](https://aeronav.faa.gov/visual/08-12-2021/PDFs/Washington.pdf), this [one is from 1995](https://maps.lib.utexas.edu/maps/tpc/txu-pclmaps-oclc-22834566_g-21b.jpg), this, although for slightly different thing, [from 1988](https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3851p.ct004873/?r=-0.141,0.034,0.6,0.369,0), but both P-56 A and B clearly visible. I cannot find anything older than that in PDF forms.
That's the one. I mean, is *also* clearly is landing at DCA but then is talking to the tower at IAD, so not like we should be talking about accuracy lol.
Was any neutral, non-Allied shipping allowed through the Suez Canal during World War II?
Was Jochebed a real person?
Is there a commonly used historical term or phrase similar to “according to Greek mythology” or “according to Egyptian mythology” for Biblical stories?
Context: I am thinking about the historical accuracy of the phrase, “According to the Hebrew account, I am the mother of Moses.”
Are there any cultures outside of the Egyptians that buried their dead with physical objects on them or in their graves?
This was very common, especially in antiquity. [*Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur*](https://books.google.com/books?id=D_-d4p4bd5kC) edited by Richard Zettler and Lee Horne, [*Necropolis of Gonur*](https://books.google.com/books?id=uppkAQAACAAJ) by Viktor Sarianidi, and [*Nimrud: The Queens' Tombs*](https://oi.uchicago.edu/research/publications/misc/nimrud-queens-tombs) by Muzahim Mahmoud Hussein (free PDF) contain some examples from contemporary Bronze/Iron Age societies.
EDIT: Oops, beaten to the punch.
Yes. Grave goods are a common and widespread phenomenon in many cultures.
See for instance: Härke, H., 2014. "Grave goods in early medieval burials: messages and meanings." *Mortality*, 19(1), pp.41-60.
Does anyone have good recommendations for books (I am fine with academic articles etc. as well, having university access) covering late *romantic* and early *modern/20th century* classical music?
I am especially interested in the rise of folkish and nationalist themes in the classical music of this period, like we see in Grieg, Sibelius, Bartok and Dvorak. Both wider cultural history and history of the more "technical" aspects of the music is of interests.
Too many to name them all! Here's some of my favorites, in no particular order
* Marina Ritzarev's *Tchaikovsky's Pathétique and Russian Culture*
* Alex Ross' *Wagnerism - Art and politics in the shadow of music*
* John Worthen's *Robert Schumann - Life and death of a musician*
* Mark Kroll's *Ignaz Moscheles and the Changing World of Musical Europe*
* Kelly St. Pierre's *Bedřich Smetana: Myth, Music, and Propaganda*
* Glenda Goss' *Sibelius: A Composer’s Life and the Awakening of Finland*
Thanks a lot, these look like exactly what I was after!
Popular appeal aside (I get why people still love this mystery), what made the FBI spend so many resources and manpower on DB Cooper – or any effort at all? 200k then / ~1.+mil now, a lot, sure, but not 200 soldier sweep and a submarine level of importance.
>Shortly after the spring thaw in early 1972, teams of FBI agents aided by some **200 Army soldiers** from Fort Lewis, along with Air Force personnel, National Guardsmen, and civilian volunteers, conducted another thorough ground search of Clark and Cowlitz counties for eighteen days in March, and then an additional eighteen days in April. Electronic Explorations Company, a marine salvage firm, **used a submarine to search the 200-foot (61 m) depths of Lake Merwin.**  Two local women stumbled upon a skeleton in an abandoned structure in Clark County; it was later identified as the remains of Barbara Ann Derry, a teenaged girl who had been abducted and murdered several weeks before. Ultimately, the search and recovery operation—**arguably the most extensive, and intensive, in U.S. history**—uncovered no significant material evidence related to the hijacking.
Surely the girl was worth more than the cash. Idk, I just find it odd. Nobody got hurt besides it wasn't *that* much money. Especially given all that was going on in the world. Cold War, height of organized crime and FBI efforts to counter, etc.
Was there a sort of ancient ecclesiastical Robert's Rules of Order followed at the Ecumenical Councils (like Nicea and Chalcedon)? Do we have detailed "minutes" of those meetings, vote counts, descriptions of the procedure?
15th-17th Cent English Bureaucracy
I’m trying to figure out if I’m missing an arm of the British Bureaucracy between 15th-17th century. The committees and wings of government that dealt with administration, etc.
House of Lords,
House of Commons,
Lords Privy Council,
I know I’m missing something(s) but not sure what it is.
ALSO: If anyone has a good book recommendation to dive deeper into this topic I’m all ears.
Where did the Royal Navy move the naval base to after the earthquake from Port Royal, Jamaica in 1692?
I was watching an episode of the show Murdoch Mysteries, which is set in Toronto in the late 1890's - early 1900's.
In the episode (S. 2, E. 8), the characters referred to a Prussian agent and the country of Prussia. With Germany having united, albeit under Prussia leadership, 20 or so years previously, how likely is it that people would continue to refer to the individual German states and nationalities as opposed to the united Germany? And if they did, when did this go out of style?
I'm not sure I can speak to *every* German principality or state after the 1871 unification, but Prussia in particular *did* get mentioned quite a bit on its own terms. In 1910 it would have been some 61.5% of the total population of Germany, and some 64.5% of its total territory. On top of this, the Prussian military more or less controlled the German Army as a whole, with only Bavaria, Saxony, and Wuerttemburg keeping their own armies and war ministries (these were the next-tier states in Germany and probably would be the ones people might be generally familiar with after Prussia). "Prussia" in particular tended to be associated with its *Junker* aristocratic gentry and militarism in general, as well as a very conservative social and political mindset: while German elections had universal manhood suffrage from 1871, *Prussian* elections were weighted by tax payments and heavily favored the Junkers.
In any case - Prussia remained the pre-eminent state in Germany after it transitioned to a republic under the Weimar constitution. The overthrow of the democratic Prussian government by German Chancellor Franz von Papen in July 1932 was a major step towards dismantling democratic institutions in Germany and helped ease Hitler's ascent to full power the following year.
Ultimately, Prussia was almost inextricably bound up with reactionary politics and militarism, to the point that the Allied Occupation authorities formally abolished the state under Control Council Law No. 46 in 1947.
Nevertheless, even after 1947 people would understand "Prussia" along with its historic associations. TIME Magazine was able to write an [obituary](http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,890477-1,00.html) for Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt in 1953 and title it "Last of the Great Prussians" without any need to explain to readers what Prussia was or what associations went along with "Prussian".
Source: Christopher Clark. *Iron Kingdom: Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600-1947*.
Thank you! I wasn't sure how long the significance of Prussia would have lasted after the unification. But it does make sense that it would have lasted for at least the generation that was alive when the Kingdom was independent.
I was watching a thing on the battle of midway, and the speaker said that afterwards, the japanese scuttled their carriers, and noted a number of lives lost for each one...e.g. "The Soryu sank at 19:13 and lost 711 men." am I to understand that they shot torpedoes at their own ships and sunk them with their sailors on board?? Or is that number the number that had previously died in the bombings?
In one case he noted that the sailors bailed onto a different ship, but in other cases, he did not note that, and it sounded like he was saying that they all died with the scuttling...surely not, right?
He specifically mentioned the case of an admiral or something choosing to go down with his ship, but i would have thought the men would be bailed out.
It was in this video: https://youtu.be/BXjydKPcX60?t=1397
Is this just a miscommunication or did they really kill their own guys?
Montemayor's phrasing indicates total casualties suffered by each ship and is not intended to be interpreted as sailors intentionally staying on board in some form of suicide-by-scuttling. Instead, all four carriers did indeed order 'abandon ship' when their captains deemed them beyond saving, with their escorting ships taking on survivors.
The four carriers were ordered abandoned at the following times (all in local time):
* *Soryu*: 10:45
* *Kaga*: 16:40
* *Akagi*: 19:20
* *Hiryu*: 03:15 of the next day
However, some sailors did, intentionally or not, stay on board the stricken ships after abandon ship was ordered. As you observed, Admiral Yamaguchi Tamon (commander of 2nd Carrier Division, *Hiryu* and *Soryu*) and Captain Kaku Tomeo (*Hiryu*'s captain) deliberately chose to stay on board, holding to the Japanese understanding of the captain going down with his ship.
Also from *Hiryu* were some survivors who were semi-intentionally left behind. The destroyer *Makigumo*, having just finished torpedoing *Hiryu* to scuttle her, then observed a group of men coming onto the carrier's flight deck. The ship's captain, apparently fearful of air attack, elected not to rescue this group and instead sent off a message by blinker. What he intended to say, we do not know; none of the men could decipher what *Makigumo* meant, and thus they were left behind as the destroyer turned away.
A scout plane off *Hosho* later came over *Hiryu* and gave us [this picture](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Japanese_aircraft_carrier_Hiryu_adrift_and_burning_on_5_June_1942_%28NH_73065%29.jpg), also spotting the survivors. These men joined with an engineering party unintentionally left behind. *Hosho*'s scout plane reported spotting the survivors, and the destroyer *Tanikaze* was ordered to proceed to *Hiryu*'s position and take the survivors off. Unfortunately, *Tanikaze* was beset by American dive-bombers and never made it to *Hiryu*, instead turning for home after the captain judged the situation too dangerous.
Thirty-nine men of this last survivor group managed to board a cutter before *Hiryu* sank, where they floated for fourteen days surviving on its emergency supplies before being spotted by a PBY Catalina patrol aircraft and rescued by the seaplane tender *Ballard*. The surviving thirty-four men later did not want it known they had survived or wished to be returned to Japan, instead preferring to be considered as having died in the battle.
So that was a bit of a digression. But here we can definitely say that yes, the Kaigun did indeed take their sailors off their stricken ships before scuttling. On learning that men had been inadvertently left behind, they did make efforts to rescue them instead of simply leaving them for dead (*Makigumo* notwithstanding). Aside from the particular Japanese take on 'captain goes down with his ship' that claimed Admiral Yamaguchi and Captain Kaku, all deaths listed in Montemayor's video are casualties suffered during the battle. (Excepting, of course, more survivors that were inadvertently left behind but never managed to make themselves known.)
I wouldn't even call it a miscommunication - Montemayor's phrasing there is echoed by *Shattered Sword*, which leads me to believe that's typical Navyspeak. Observe:
> "The next time he looked back, she [*Hiryu*] was gone, carrying 392 of her crew with her."
> "In all, 811 of her [*Kaga*] crew now lay dead within the shattered wreck."
> "Then she [*Akagi*] was gone “as if pulled down by a huge hand” as *Maikaze*’s commanding officer described it, carrying 267 crewmen with her into the abyss."
All of the above from *Shattered Sword*, Jon Parshall and Anthony Tully of 2005.
Great information! Let me change my phrasing then to indicate that it was a misunderstanding on my part.
Thank you for clearing that up and for the other tales you shared with me.
So what wound up happening to the sailors rescued by the Ballard? Is it known?
The survivors were photographed on *Ballard*, ([one picture](https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_Midway,_June_1942_\(23958837426\).jpg), [another picture](https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_Midway,_June_1942_\(23958832796\).jpg)), with the caption on the second one indicating they were sent to Pearl Harbor on 23 June. The file of their interrogation is dated 28 June. Unfortunately, *Shattered Sword* details nothing further on them.
The ranking officer, Commander Aimune Kunize (*Hiryu*'s chief engineer) is cited as providing an account to *Shogen Midowei Kaisen* (Witnesses to the Midway Sea Battle), written and compiled by fellow Midway survivor Hashimoto Toshio, so Aimune may have managed to return to Japan sometime after. The only names *Shattered Sword* provides are that of Aimune and Ensign Mandai Hisao, another engineering officer from *Hiryu*.
That's all of the details I can wring out of *Shattered Sword*, so this seems like a good area for further research, if anyone's willing to take on the case.
Can anyone identify the buildings drawn in [panel 5](https://viruscomix.com/2020nine.html)?
* 1980 BCE [Ziggurat of Ur](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ziggurat_of_Ur)
* 2600 BCE [Great pyramid of Giza](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza)?
* 246 BCE [Lighthouse of Alexandria](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lighthouse_of_Alexandria)
* 575 BCE [Ishtar Gate, Babylon](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishtar_Gate) ([replica](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ihstar_Gate_RB.JPG)) *thanks u/Largue*
* 438 BCE [Parthenon](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon)
* 1644 CE [Great Wall of China](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wall_of_China)
* 1438 CE [Amir Chakhmaq mosque (aka Dahouk mosque), Yazd, Iran](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amir_Chakhmaq_Mosque) *thanks /u/Cedric_Hampton*
* 1710 CE [St Paul's Cathedral, London](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral) *thanks u/Largue* ~~1626 CE [St. Peter's Basilica](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Peter%27s_Basilica)?~~
The missing mosque is the Amir Chakhmaq Mosque in Yazd, Iran, completed in 1438.
See: Blair, Sheila S., and Jonathan M. Bloom. *The Art and Architecture of Islam, 1250–1800.* New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.
Re: the missing castle - when having both square and round towers, is it uncommon for the square tower to be on the corner?
I'm less familiar with medieval architecture, but it seems strange to me that a castle would have on its façade one round and one square turret on the same scale and built in identical materials as seems to be the case here (rather than one built later as an addition, which is certainly common). The castle might be a creation of the imagination and not based upon a specific structure--though that would itself be strange, as all the other buildings are identifiable.
I agree with your identification of the other buildings, but I'm not sure there's enough of the structure visible to say with certainty that it's the Great Pyramid of Giza rather than, say, the Pyramid of Khafre.
See: Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain. *Cathedrals and Castles: Building in the Middle Ages.* New York: H. N. Abrams, 1995.
>I agree with your identification of the other buildings, but I'm not sure there's enough of the structure visible to say with certainty that it's the Great Pyramid of Giza rather than, say, the Pyramid of Khafre.
It is the Great Pyramid (Khufu); the Pyramid of Khafre has a "cap"--the remnants of the smooth limestone layer that was stripped off of both pyramids--except the topmost part of Khafre, mostly during the Islamic period where the bricks were used to build palaces and public buildings in Cairo. The cap section would be detectable in the portion of the structure shown in the image.
But all the buildings are rendered as reconstructions.
For example, the ziggurat of Ur is shown intact even though it is missing several levels today, the Lighthouse of Alexandria is now completely destroyed, and the Parthenon is in ruins. Yet all appear in perfect condition in the drawings.
If the Pyramid of Khafre was portrayed in the same manner, the "cap" we see today wouldn't be visible.
Who was the first person to enter Hitler's bunker after his suicide?
Heinz Linge, his valet, and Martin Bormann, his secretary. (Anton Joachimsthaler, *The Last Days of Hitler*)
Really? I was expecting someone like a soldier
Is there a book or an article containing a summary of the existing historiographical debate about the Great Divergence, by which I mean the debate about why Europe became the dominant economic and political power of the globe while other regions did not? I am aware of Kenneth Pomeranz of course as well as Prasannan Parthasarathi, but I was wondering if anyone had summarized all the relevant literature in one place.
This [comment](https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/j61g3d/when_and_why_did_the_great_divergence_happen/g7xvunu/) by /u/IconicJester might be of help.
There are also good shoutouts in this [thread](https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/eomsly/kenneth_pomeranzs_book_the_great_divergence_was/)
Thank you! That comment is very detailed.
What is the estimated population of every single nation in 600 AD?
Does anybody have any links to good videos/books on WW1 logistics?
I can help a bit. A pretty good primer on the whole subject would be Martin van Creveld's *Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton*, a rather general study of how lack of supplies can cripple and defeat an otherwise very competent army. It's old, and has some faults, but it's classic. For WWI, Ian Malcom Brown's *British Logistics on the Western Front 1914-1919* is very good, very illuminating- a transportation system unable to supply the increasing demands of an industrial war, which became apparent with the Battle of the Somme: and how it was changed to meet the challenge. But you'd want to check your libraries first, as Brown's book is now absurdly expensive ( $100 for even the *eBook*? Really?) Christopher Phillips' *Civilian Specialists at War: British Transport Experts and the First World War* is very well-researched, very solid. It mostly covers what it says: the greater role that civilian managers, with their greeter expertise in railways, shipping etc. had to play in the War, displacing military officers who sometimes knew too little, but you can get a decent idea of the general problems of supply...and the eBook is only $6.
Thanks, I'll give these a look. Any sources you know on the French or Germans? I was interested in taking a look at how each country modernized their logistics systems, the different issues they all faced in doing so, the effectiveness of their respective approaches, etc.
I did some rummaging, and while it's not the big survey you seek you might like this book on the 1918 German offensive useful. The failure of the offensive was very much tied to limits of logistics:
Van Creveld 's book is far, far too short to qualify, alas. The number of books and publications on WWI is absolutely huge, and it would be worth posting this as a question in its own right to see if a specialist is aware of the comparative study you seek: I have not found one. If it has not been written, I suspect it's because there's an entire mountain range of rather dull documents in three languages that would have to be digested ( like a weekly report of tonnage of lard delivered through Murmansk in 1916). It may not be a project that attracts researchers.
How big a surprise was the end of Lend Lease to the UK and when did that surprise come? I've seen it referred to as a "surprise end" several times when talking about post-war economy of the UK. I understand that the law for it to end when the war ended was only a few months old? But it was created specifically for the war, so it seems logical to me that at least some must have always thought it would end as soon as the war ended - or that just hindsight coloring my view? Or did the US previously give indication it would last longer? Or was it that they knew it would end, but the war ended more quickly than they thought?
Was Barnabas McHenry b. 1715 a close relative of James McHenry?
I'm looking for a book on codes and ciphers that might have been used in Italy during the Renaissance.
The codebreaking successes of Alan Turing and the Allies at Bletchley Park are well known, but were there parallel successes on the Axis side?
Yes. The German Navy's B-Dienst and the Italian Navy's intelligence service had managed to break many of the British and French naval codes. The Italians had also broken many British and American diplomatic codes, which they shared with the Germans. This let them track many Royal Navy vessels, Allied convoys and the like until, with the aid of Enigma decrpyts, the Allies worked out that their codes were being broken in 1943. The broken American diplomatic codes were very helpful to the Axis in the North African desert. These codes, especially the 'Black' code, were used by the American military attache in Cairo to send messages back to Washington; many of these messages contained important information about 8th Army's plans, strengths and deployments. However, the British would discover this breach in 1942, when they captured a German signals intelligence unit. This allowed the Allies to use the code to send disinformation.
*British Naval Intelligence Through the Twentieth Century*, Andrew Boyd, Seaforth, 2020
*Deceiving Hitler: Double Cross and Deception in World War II*, Terry Crowdy, Osprey, 2013
*Turning the Hinge of Fate: Good Source and the UK-U.S. Intelligence Alliance, 1940–1942*, C. J. Jenner, Diplomatic History
Vol. 32, No. 2, 2008
Wow, thank you for taking the time and writing a great answer. That is very very interesting!
If I can ask a follow-up, which of these sources would you say would have the most accessible information on the codes themselves, how they worked, and how they were broken? I have been watching some videos on Enigma and Colossus, and it is astounding how these people deduced how these encryption machines worked through noticing patterns and doing the math.
For an easily accessible and understandable work on the German (and, to a lesser extent, Italian) codebreaking, Christian Jennings' *The Third Reich is Listening: Inside German Codebreaking 1939-45* would probably be my recommendation. It's far from academic, and there are some mistakes or misrepresentations, but it does explain their work well. The British codes that were broken were considerably simpler than Enigma or Lorenz. They were 'book codes', where a book contained a list of words with a corresponding 'code group', a short set of letters or numbers. The British equivalent to Enigma, Typex, was never broken by the Germans.
Where and when was the "20 years" guideline for historians established?
Nowhere and no place, because that isn't a rule of academic history. That's a rule that's *specific* to r/AskHistorians **as a subreddit**. There is absolutely nothing stopping historians of the real world doing anything they like to an event within 20 years if they really want to.
Previous threads on the 20-year rule:
I thought there might be more to this norm since my history profs mentioned it too many years ago. Thank you for your answer and these references
I have a couple stray 9/11 questions that I didn't think of in time for the excellent [Megathread](https://old.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/plzb25/megathread_a_brief_history_of_september_11th_2001/https://old.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/plzb25/megathread_a_brief_history_of_september_11th_2001/).
1) We hear many reports of firefighters entering the towers knowing there was a significant likelihood they would not survive the day. Are there any reports of firefighters that cracked under the pressure and went "AWOL" - abandoning their duties in favor of their own safety?
2) Watching documentary footage, one thing that stands out is the vast amount of *papers* that were fluttering all over lower Manhattan after the planes struck the towers. Are there any notable examples of trade secrets or other sensitive information that leaked as a result of the attacks?
I’m about halfway through reading **Reynaert the Fox (Le Roman de Renart)**, and I feel as if I’m missing something.
The stories are a little cute, but they are so simplistic and seem to lack any further meaning. Many stories I’ve read from the Middle Ages seem to be either heroic, or have a Christian lesson to be learned, or are funny for the sake of it. Le Roman de Renart, though, doesn’t seem to have an obvious “goal”, as far as I can tell.
What am I missing? What’s the reason this was so popular and so many monks took it upon themselves to further the story?
*Le Roman de Renart* is a loose collection of stories written from the late 12th century to the early 13th century by twenty or more different authors, most of them anonymous. The "Roman" is divided in what scholars have called "branches" (between 20 and 30) which are single stories or groups of stories that present a certain homogeneity in style and follow a narrative thread.
The stories themselves are often retelling of Latin and Greek fables, like *The Fox and the Crow*, or the rewriting (with major changes) of more recent works like *Ysengrimus* of Flemish poet Nivardus of Ghent.
Branches differ widely in style and content. The level of anthropomorphism, which is a key factor in the comedic aspect of the tales, is highly variable: depending on the story, the characters are talking animals who live in burrows and interact with humans, or near-humans who live in castles. To some extent, we could compare it to modern US-style comic books, where a recurring cast of characters appear in stories written by different people over several decades: the broad traits of the main characters (eg Captain America as a highly moral person) are more or less consistent across disconnected stories.
So, you are right in saying that there is no "obvious" goal: the stories are mainly tied together by the presence of the titular character, Renart. He is a trickster, which is an archetypal character common to many mythologies (e.g. Loki). He's fundamentally mischievious and morally ambiguous: while his tricks are often despicable (he rapes Hersent when she's stuck in a hole, murders Dame Coupée, eats Drouin's children etc.), some of his targets, notably Isengrim, are punished for their greed. Renard is "cruel, knavish and perverse" (Bellon, 1986), but he is also a (anti-)hero that the reader can root for, and he also gets tricked himself, because we love tricksters doing tricks and tricksters being tricked.
Scholars have debated for decades about the meaning of the tales, and the general consensus is that, in addition to their comedic and (very occasional) moralistic value, they provide different levels of satire that would have been easily understood by their medieval readers or listeners.
* They are a literary satire of popular genres, the epic *chanson de geste* and poems of courtly love. There is for instance at the beginning of the story of Grimbert a direct reference to a famous verse of the *Song of Roland*. The "rides" of the characters in the countryside evoke the heroic ones in epic poems. The tale of Renart and Hersent parodies in a crude, near pornographic fashion, those of Tristan and Iseut or Arthur and Guenievre.
* They are a social satire that targets the different strata of the feudal society, notably the nobles, the clergy, the peasants, and women. Nobles, including low-ranking ones like Renard, literally *prey* on the lower classes. They are shown to be brutish, cruel, greedy, gluttonous, and either cunning or stupid. The satire can be even subtle, as in the case of the trial, where the King and the other characters discuss in a sensible, almost realistic, manner. The camel, who speaks a funny mixture of Latin, French and Italian, has been shown to be based on papal legate Pierre de Pavie. The clergy is often mocked, such as the two priests who fight over the skin of Tibert the Cat. Peasants and lower classes are not spared either and depicted as coarse. Women are sensual, fickle and naturally unfaithful.
The *Roman de Renart* is a multi-faceted work whose long-term appeal results from the use of archetypes (the trickster), the rewriting/retelling of well-known and narratively efficient tales, a wide range of comedic styles (from crude slapstick to literary parodies), and a wide range of social criticism and commentary, some of it still valid today. In addition, anthropomorphism makes it adaptable (and palatable) to a wide range of audiences.
* Bellon, Roger. “Trickery as an Element of the Character of Renart.” Forum for Modern Language Studies XXII, no. 1 (January 1, 1986): 34–52. https://doi.org/10.1093/fmls/XXII.1.34.
* Bergez, Daniel, Christiane Lauvergnat-Gagnière, Anne Paupert, Yves Stalloni, and Gilles Vannier. “Le roman de Renart.” In Précis de littérature française, 5e éd.:54–56, 2020. https://www.cairn.info/precis-de-litterature-francaise--9782200626457-page-54.htm.
* Devard, Jérôme. Le roman de Renart: le reflet critique de la société féodale. Harmattan, 2010. https://books.google.fr/books?id=LrjLoBfJ8-gC.
* Flinn, John. Le Roman de Renart: Dans La Littérature Française et Dans Les Littérature Étrangères Au Moyen Âge. University of Toronto Press, 1963. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt1vgw9qd.
Thank you very much for your illuminating answer! I’ve finished reading the collection I have, and the latter parts, with Renarts trial and escape, was actually really captivating and fun to read.
I’ve noticed that the nobles and kings are made fun of the most. The lion and his barons are always made to be gullible fools. I’m not sure if this was aimed at a specific family/dynasty in the 1200s, or if it criticises nobles of all times and places.
Indeed, scholars have found parallels between the behaviour of the nobles and historical situations, and names of actual people appear in some of the "branches". Kings Philippe Auguste and Louis VII are probable models for the King Noble (depending on the period).
One interesting parallel happened after it was written: sometimes in the late 1250s, baron Enguerrand IV de Coucy had three Flemish young (noble) men hung for hunting rabbits in his lands. Louis IX aka Saint Louis had him arrested and wanted to have him executed, but his barons defended Enguerran. The king, worried about having the nobles side against him, set Enguerran free with a heavy fine and the promise to go to the Holy Land for three years.
When did the terms like "Frankish Empire" and "Carolingian Empire" first appear in historiography?
I was in a discussion about the Holy Roman Empire and Charlemagne. The gentleman I was arguing with said that the Holy Roman Empire didn't exist during Charlemagne's time "only the Frankish empire"
Which I pointed out that Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans and it was just referred to as "the Empire" until Frederick Barbarossa and Frederick II used the term "Holy Roman Empire" as a mirror to the Holy Roman Church and that the "Frankish Empire" isn't a historic term. But I don't know when it first appears, my guess is the 19th century, it's always the 19th century.
So like Hieronymus Wolf making up the term Byzantine Empire 100 years after the fall of Constantinople to cement the western position that the greeks weren't the Romans, What's the origins of "Frankish empire or Carolingian Empire" and is it used to separate Charlemagne or Karl de grosse from the later super german Holy Roman Empire and keep him in the more French focused historiography?